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266          MY   COUNTRY   AND   MY   PEOPLE

All these changes have come through the influence of Euro-
pean literature. This influence is, of course, not confined to
literature, for China has reaped in one harvest the fruits of
Western scholarship in philosophy, psychology, science
technology, economics and all those things contained in the
modern critical culture. Even foreign children's games and
songs and dances are now being introduced. The net positive
result of its progress in literature has been summarized in the
discussion on the literary revolution. This influence comes as a
direct result of translations of European literature. A glance
at the range and content of these translations would show the
extent and, incidentally, the type of this influence.

The 15134 Yearbook of Chinese Publications (in Chinese) gives
a list of these translations of poems, short stories and novels
made in the last twenty-three years, covering twenty-six
countries. This list is by no means complete, but will serve for
our present purpose. Given in the order of the number of
authors represented, they are as follows: England 47,France 38,
Russia 36, Germany 30, Japan 30, United States 18, Italy 7,
Norway 6, Poland 5, Spain 4, Hungary 3, Greece 3, Africa 2,
Jews 2, and the rest, Sweden, Belgium, Finland, Czecho-
slovakia, Austria, Latvia, Bulgaria, Jugoslavia, Syria, Persia,
India and Siam, represented by one author each.

An examination of the translations from English authors
shows that the novelists are represented by George Eliot,
Fielding, Defoe (including Moll Flanders], Kingsley, Swift,
Goldsmith, the Bronte sisters (Wuthering Heights and Vilhtte],
Scott, Conrad, Mrs. Gaskell and Dickens (Old Curiosity Shop,
David Cofperfield, Oliver Twist, Dombey and Son, Nicholas Nickleby,
A Tale of Two Cities, Christmas Carol, Hard Times}. Rider
Haggard, through the influence of Lin Shu's translations, has
obtained a popularity entirely out of proportion with his
standing. The poets are represented by Spenser (Faerie Qyeene],
Browning, Burns, Byron, Shelley, Wordsworth, Ernest Dowson.
Five of Shakespeare's plays (Merchant of Venice, As You Like
It, Twelfth Night,. Hmry VI and Romeo and Julietórather
haphazard, as one can see} have been translated by separate
translators. The drama is represented by Galsworthy (seven
of his plays), Pinero, Jones, Sheridan (School for Scandal] and